RECENT UPDATES TO TEXAS PHARMACY LAWS AND RULES
Pamela Sardo, PharmD, B.S.
Pamela Sardo, PharmD, B.S. is a freelance medical writer and currently licensed pharmacist in 3 states. She is the founder and principal at Sardo Solutions in Texas. Pam received her B.S. from the University of Connecticut and her Pharm.D. from the University of Rhode Island. Pam’s career spans many years in retail, clinics, hospitals, long-term care, Veterans Affairs, and managed health care responsibilities across a broad range of therapeutic classes and disease states.
Healthcare as a profession, including pharmacy practice, is highly regulated. Texas laws and rules governing pharmacy practice are continually reviewed and updated. This review provides recent pharmacy practice updates regarding fingerprinting, re-dispensing unused prescriptions in specific situations, continuing education, intern hours, and emergency medical kits. It also shares amendments regarding emergency refills of insulin and supplies and discusses the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program. As pharmacy team members learn and adhere to the updates, they support the Texas State Board of Pharmacy's mission to prioritize the health and safety of the citizens of Texas.
RxCe.com LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.
Universal Activity Number (UAN): The ACPE Universal Activity Number assigned to this activity is
Pharmacy Technician 0669-0000-23-023-H03-T
Credits: 1 hour of continuing education credit
Type of Activity: Knowledge
Media: Internet/Home study Fee Information: $4.99
Estimated time to complete activity: 1 hour, including Course Test and course evaluation
Release Date: April 24, 2023 Expiration Date: April 24, 2026
Target Audience: This educational activity is for pharmacists.
How to Earn Credit: From April 24, 2023, through April 24, 2026, participants must:
Read the “learning objectives” and “author and planning team disclosures;”
Study the section entitled “educational activity;” and
Complete the Course Test and Evaluation form. The Course Test will be graded automatically. Following successful completion of the Course Test with a score of 70% or higher, a statement of participation will be made available immediately. (No partial credit will be given.)
Credit for this course will be uploaded to CPE Monitor®.
Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this educational activity, participants should be able to:
Describe where to locate Texas pharmacy rules and laws
Describe recent changes to Texas pharmacy practice rules
Identify Texas pharmacy continuing education updates
Explain Texas pharmacy practice updates regarding emergency insulin refills and insulin-related supplies
The following individuals were involved in the development of this activity: Pamela Sardo, PharmD, BS. Pamela Sardo, Pharm.D., B.S., was an employee of Rhythm Pharmaceuticals until March 2022 and has no conflicts of interest or relationships regarding the subject matter discussed. There are no financial relationships relevant to this activity to report or disclose by any of the individuals involved in the development of this activity.
© RxCe.com LLC 2023: All rights reserved. No reproduction of all or part of any content herein is allowed without the prior, written permission of RxCe.com LLC.
Pharmacy practice is highly regulated. The Texas State Board of Pharmacy has been very active this past year, implementing many amendments following the most recent Texas legislative session. Pharmacy practice laws and rules change to update educational requirements and processes and to address patient care and safety. Some updates are minor (grammar or vocabulary edits), while others modify requirements. Others are detailed and important for daily practice. This course is intended to highlight recent changes in Texas pharmacy laws and rules and their impact on daily pharmacy practice. These changes are relevant for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. This program is organized by communicating the most recent updates first, with earlier effective dates and related topics located further in the article. The updates in this article are also separated by license type (i.e., pharmacist, intern, or pharmacy technician) as described in the update of board rules or laws.
The History of Pharmacy and Regulations in Texas
The Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was among the first Europeans to practice pharmacy and medicine in North America.1 He was shipwrecked along the coast of Texas on November 6, 1528.2 When his group landed in Texas in 1528, Native Americans enslaved them and forced them to treat victims of epidemic diseases that accompanied the explorers. Cabeza de Vaca combined his European knowledge with Native American medicine, herbs, concoctions, and magic.1
Legislation that first recognized the need for regulating pharmacy practice in Texas was passed in 1889. The legislature established boards of "pharmaceutical examiners," which were three-man committees in each state senatorial district. These committees examined and certified pharmacists but there was no inconsistency between them. During this time, records were sparse, and no central authority coordinated the activities of each senatorial district’s committee.3
This changed in 1907 when the Texas Legislature passed the first Texas Pharmacy Act to centralize pharmacy practice regulation and add consistency. This Act established the Texas State Board of Pharmacy (TSBP) as an independent state regulatory board. In 1908, the agency had its first representation at the annual meeting of the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP). The agency joined NABP that year.3
Pharmacy professions are among the most regulated industries.4 This regulation exists because healthcare deeply impacts people's lives and could cause harm if unregulated.4 As such, regulating pharmacy practice in Texas continues to change and grow.
Texas Board of Pharmacy Amended Rules
The TSBP comprises eleven Governor-appointed members and over 100 staff members who oversee a licensee population that consists of pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and various types of pharmacies and pharmacy facilities.3 The TSBP website is the optimal resource for updates regarding pharmacy practice. The TSBP website contains an easy-to-use “Laws and Rules” tab, at https://www.pharmacy.texas.gov/.
Recently adopted rule change summaries can be located at https://www.pharmacy.texas.gov/Rules_Recent_Adopted_Changes.asp within the TSBP website.
The Texas State Legislature meets biennially and may pass laws affecting Texas pharmacy practice. It is important to understand these laws and the rules issued by the TSBP. The TSBP issues rules that fulfill its mission statement: to protect public health, uphold quality licensing standards, and facilitate regulation that promotes innovative, multidisciplinary, and collaborative practices and education.5 Pharmacy team members can contribute to the TSBP mission by prioritizing the health and safety of the citizens of Texas.
Fingerprint Check in the Texas Occupations Code Section 602.2101
A fingerprint background check is now required prior to pharmacist license renewal, beginning with pharmacists whose licenses must be renewed by February 28, 2023.6 This section requires a fingerprint background check for all current licensees and permit holders and requires those who completed a fingerprint requirement before June 1, 2015, to complete a new fingerprint background check. This is a one-time requirement.6 The requirement began with pharmacy technicians and now expands to pharmacists. Reminders of the requirement will be included with the renewal notice sent 60 days before license expiration. Fingerprint information for pharmacists, technicians, trainees, and interns is located on the TSBP website.6 To complete the fingerprint session outside of the renewal period, email email@example.com with the license number, full name, and the request.
Amendments Related to the Return of Prescription Drugs Effective December 2022
Board Rule §291.8
The amendments clarified that a pharmacist may redispense a prescription drug as authorized by exceptions in Chapters 431 and 442 of the Health and Safety Code.7 A licensed healthcare professional in a penal institution, or a consultant pharmacist, may return certain unused drugs, other than a controlled substance, to a pharmacy. The unused drugs must be sealed in unopened packaging It also includes parenteral medications in sealed multiple-dose containers if doses have not been withdrawn. It outlines procedures for returning unused drugs from a health care facility or a penal institution to a dispensing pharmacy as specified in §562.1085 of the Occupations Code. Participation in this limited redispensing is optional.7
Board Rule §291.33
These amendments clarified additional aspects of the limited redispensing.8 A pharmacist may redispense a prescription drug only as authorized by exceptions in Chapters 431 and 442 of the Health and Safety Code. Effective December 2022, §291.33 applies to certain medications packaged in unit-of-use containers that are administered to the patient during the hospitalization and may be provided to the patient upon discharge provided the pharmacy receives a discharge order and the product bears a label containing the name of the patient; name and strength of the medication; name of the prescribing or attending practitioner; directions for use; duration of therapy; and name and telephone number of the pharmacy.8
Amendments Related to Continuing Education (CE) Requirements Effective December 2022
Board Rule §295.8
Thirty total hours are required for each pharmacist license renewal period.9 Twenty hours are required for each pharmacy technician renewal period. This rule clarifies that the requirement to complete a human trafficking prevention course for renewal of a pharmacist license does not expire on September 1, 2022.9 The human trafficking prevention course for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians is required in §116.002 of the Texas Occupations Code. The purpose of these requirements is to enhance the professional competency of licensed pharmacists and protect the health and welfare of the citizens of Texas.9
Board Rule §297.8
The update to the rule clarified that the requirement to complete a human trafficking prevention course for renewal of a registration as a pharmacy technician does not expire on September 1, 2022.10
Amendments Concerning Internship Requirements Effective September 2022
Board Rule §283.4
The amendments to this rule removed language to establish that a person graduating from a college or school of pharmacy shall only be credited the number of hours obtained and reported by the program.11 Hours can be obtained in a board-approved internship, extended internship, hours credited upon graduation from a school of pharmacy, or when certified by a board of pharmacy in another state.11
Amendments Concerning Operational Standards Effective September 2022
Board Rule §291.33
This amendment updated the patient counseling rule. It removed the requirement that verbal patient counseling on a new prescription must be done in person.8 The Office of the Governor initially suspended this requirement due to COVID-19.12
Amendments Related to Non-Resident (Class E) Pharmacies Effective September 2022
Board Rule §291.104
The update to the rule clarified that a Class E pharmacy engaged in outsourcing prescription drug order dispensing to a central fill pharmacy shall comply with §291.125 regarding centralized prescription dispensing. A Class E Pharmacy may outsource prescription drug order dispensing to a central fill pharmacy.12
Board Rule §291.125
The amendments clarified that a Class E pharmacy may outsource prescription drug order dispensing to a central fill pharmacy and shall comply
with specified requirements unless compliance would violate the laws or rules in the state where the pharmacy is located.12
Amendments Concerning Compounding Non-Sterile Preparations Effective September 2022
Board Rule §291.131
This rule adds definitions of cleaning and sanitizing and clarifies the training requirements for all personnel involved in non-sterile compounding.13 It updates environmental, equipment, and compounding process requirements for non-sterile compounding. Training shall include instruction and demonstration of hand hygiene, garbing, cleaning, and sanitizing, handling and transporting components and compounded non-sterile preparations, measuring and mixing, proper use of equipment and devices selected to compound non-sterile preparations, and documentation of the compounding process (e.g., Master Formulation Records and Compounding Records).13
Amendments Concerning Remote Emergency Medication Kits Effective June 2022
Board Rule §291.121
The updates to this rule removed a prohibition against duplicating drugs stored in emergency medication kits in a remote pharmacy location.14 This rule explains if more than one provider pharmacy provides an emergency kit to a remote site, the provider pharmacies must enter into a written agreement as to the emergency medications supplied by each pharmacy. The written agreement shall include reasons why an additional pharmacy is required to meet the emergency medication needs of the residents of the institution.15
Amendments Concerning Emergency Refill of Insulin and Supplies Effective December 2021
Board Rule §291.34
The amendments clarified that a pharmacist may provide an emergency refill of insulin or insulin-related equipment or supplies under certain conditions.16 The rule advises that pharmacists use professional judgment regarding requests for emergency insulin or insulin-related supplies to determine appropriateness. There should be a “reasonable effort” to reach a prescriber. There must be documentation that the patient was previously prescribed insulin or related supplies.16 Pharmacy technicians should be familiar with this new rule. Refer patients to pharmacists when needed to assist implementation of this rule.
Pharmacist-Intern and Pharmacy Technician Rules
Pharmacist-Intern and Pharmacy Technician Ratios and Duties Effective December 2020
|Pharmacy Class/ Regulation
|Receive Oral Rx
|Contact Prescriber for Info†
|Community (Class A)
|Community (Class A)
|Modifies to allow
|Community (Class A)
max 3 trainees
|Community (Class A)
|Community (Class A)
|Nuclear (Class B)
|Modifies to allow
|Nuclear (Class B)
max 3 trainees
|Nuclear (Class B)
|Modifies to allow
|Modifies to allow
I =Pharmacist Intern; T =Pharmacy Technician
* Expanded technician duties do not apply to controlled substances
†Expanded duties do not include technician trainees
‡Removes ratio when interns are performing technician duties under certain conditions Table 1 was adapted from Texas State Board of Pharmacy, Texas Pharmacy Rules17
CE Requirements Added Effective December 2019 Board Rule §295.8
One hour of continuing education annually must be related to pain management as specified in House Bill 3285.18 Two hours per license renewal period are required for all renewals received after August 31, 2021, and before September 1, 2023. These must be taken in different years.9
Prescribing and monitoring controlled substances
Two hours of continuing education must be related to prescribing and monitoring controlled substances as specified in House Bill 2174.19 This requirement must be met for all renewals received beginning September 1, 2021.9
Human Trafficking Prevention
Pharmacists must complete a human trafficking prevention course as specified in House Bill 2059.20 The Health and Human Services Commission is the approving body for the program. This requirement must be met for all renewals received after August 31, 2020, and must be completed each renewal period.9
Board Rule §295.8 Effective June 18, 2020 Mental Health Awareness
One hour per license renewal period must be related to mental health awareness. Any program relating to mental health awareness in terms of disease states, treatment modalities, etc., should be able to be counted. This requirement must be met for all renewals received after August 31, 2021 and before September 1, 2023.9
Table 2 summarizes pharmacist continuing education requirements. Visit the TSBP website at www.pharmacy.texas.gov/ce to learn more about the new CE requirements and general CE frequently asked questions (FAQs).
Pharmacist and Newly Licensed Pharmacist CE Requirements Board Rule §295.8
|Pharmacist CE- all below are required*
|Below 2 topics are required for a newly licensed pharmacist
|3 CE topics below are exempt for initial license pharmacist renewal
(1 hr annually)
Prescribing and monitoring controlled
|Mental health awareness
|Texas-specific pharmacy laws and/or rules
|Any subject or special certification CE
*A Human Trafficking Prevention course is also mandatory for all Table 2 is adapted from Board Rule §295.89
Pharmacy Technician CE
Board Rule §297.8 Effective December 2019
Table 3 summarizes pharmacy technician continuing education requirements. This board rule added an amendment for a human trafficking prevention course for pharmacy technicians as specified in House Bill 2059.20 This requirement must be completed each renewal period. Pharmacy technicians are subject to a random audit of CE by the TSBP. Pharmacy technicians may count CE obtained for national certification toward the state CE requirements if it meets state CE requirements and falls within the current renewal period.10
Pharmacy Technician CE Requirements Board Rule §297.8
|Pharmacy Technician CE- all below are required*
Topics below are exempt
for initial pharmacy technician renewal
|Texas-specific pharmacy laws and/or rules
Can be any subject
Can be special certification CE requirements such as sterile compounding
*A Human Trafficking Prevention course is also mandatory for all Table 3 is adapted from Board Rule §297.810
Texas Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP)
The Texas Prescription Monitoring Program (Texas PMP), also referred to as AWARxE, is managed by the Texas State Board of Pharmacy. It collects and monitors outpatient prescription data for all Schedule II, III, IV, and V controlled substances dispensed by a pharmacy in Texas. It also collects and monitors controlled substances for a Texas resident from a pharmacy located in another state.21
The Texas PMP is a patient care tool that can be used to inform prescribing practices, as well as address prescription drug misuse and diversion. The number of states utilizing the program is increasing. Texas PMP shares prescription data with 36 other states and entities, allowing prescribers and pharmacists to track prescriptions dispensed outside the state of Texas.21 Pharmacists and prescribers (other than a veterinarian) are required to check the patient’s PMP history before dispensing or prescribing opioids, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or carisoprodol.21
The Texas PMP allows prescribers and pharmacists to designate an unlimited number of delegates to access patient prescription data and generate reports on their behalf. Every individual is required to register as a separate user; however, all delegate queries are attributed to the prescriber or pharmacist for whom they generate the report.22
The Texas PMP can be accessed in several ways:
The 88th Texas Legislature convened in January 2023 and will adjourn in May 2023. Pharmacy-associated bills and a resolution have been submitted. House Resolution (H.R.) 222 resolves that because pharmacists often serve as the primary point of contact with the health care system for tens of millions of Americans and have an important role in counseling on the safe and effective use of medications, the House of Representatives designates February 28, 2023, as Texas Pharmacy Day.23
An additional proposed bill is under consideration involving new details regarding emergency refills of insulin.24 Another bill has been introduced that addresses pharmacy benefits managers.25 A bill possibly impacting the insurance code, HIPAA, and pharmacy involving the disclosure of certain prescription drug information by a health benefit plan has also been introduced.26 The TSBP also has a Rule Review plan through the fiscal year 2025.27
The practice of pharmacy continues to evolve and the official pharmacy statutes and rules should always be consulted for comprehensive information relating to a particular statute or rule. The TSBP has implemented changes in Texas law that promote public health for Texas citizens, and that encourage innovative, multidisciplinary, and collaborative practices and education in the pharmacy and healthcare settings. Pharmacy team members contribute to this mission of prioritizing the health and safety of the citizens of Texas through learning and following the pharmacy statutes and rules in Texas.
Where are the Texas pharmacy rules and laws located?
Which statement is true regarding pharmacy professionals and fingerprints?
Fingerprints are only required for professionals disciplined by the TSBP
Fingerprints are no longer required for licenses after June 1, 2015
A fingerprint background check is required prior to pharmacist license renewal
Email firstname.lastname@example.org to request fingerprint exemptions
Which statement best describes pharmacy professional continuing education requirements?
Pharmacists must complete 40 hours and pharmacy technicians must complete 30 hours in each renewal period
The human trafficking CE requirement for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians expired on September 1, 2021
Pharmacists’ and pharmacy technicians’ initial renewal period must include sterile compounding and mental health awareness CE
Newly licensed pharmacists must complete 2 hours of pain management CE and initial pharmacy technician renewal must include 1 hour of pharmacy law
On Saturday afternoon, a patient notifies the pharmacy that they have not had their dose of insulin because they dropped their last bottle of insulin on the floor and it broke. How should pharmacy personnel proceed regarding the emergency refill request?
Pharmacy technicians will refer the patient to the pharmacist to assist implementation of this rule
There will be a “reasonable effort” to reach a prescriber to assist the patient with this refill request
There must be documentation that the patient was previously prescribed insulin or related supplies
All of the above are correct regarding emergency insulin refill requests
What is the pharmacist-to-technician ratio in a Class A (Community) pharmacy setting?
The ratio has been removed
The ratio is 1:6
The ratio is 1:3
The ratio is 1:7
Excluding pharmacy technician trainees, what duties below are allowed to be performed by a pharmacy technician?
A technician can contact the prescriber for information in a Class B (Nuclear) pharmacy
A technician can contact a prescriber for information in a remote pharmacy
A technician can contact a prescriber for information in a satellite pharmacy
A technician can contact a prescriber for information in a Class A (Community) pharmacy
Name 2 recent changes to Texas pharmacy practice rules.
A pharmacist may redispense a penal institution prescription drug as authorized by exception in Board Rule §291.8
A pharmacist may redispense an open container of metoprolol as authorized by Board Rule §295.8
A pharmacist may redispense a unit of use container as described in Board Rule §291.33
a and c are correct
Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians must be aware of pharmacy laws and rules. Which statement below is important to remember?
Patient counseling is not as important as other rules, so Board Rule
§291.33 concerning operational standards exempts counseling on new prescriptions
Concerning operational standards, due to COVID, Board Rule §291.33 exempts oral counseling on new prescriptions from being provided in person
In pharmacies that compound, Board Rule §291.131 informs that only the pharmacist-in-charge needs training on hand hygiene
In pharmacies that compound, Board Rule §291.131 informs that only technicians need training on cleaning and sanitizing
A director of a federally operated institution and pharmacy asks the pharmacy personnel for help obtaining a remote emergency medication kit for their remote site of residents 12 miles away because their usual provider pharmacy is always out of stock. What factors should be considered?
The provider pharmacies must enter into a written agreement regarding the emergency medications supplied by each pharmacy
Board Rule §291.121 removes a prohibition against duplicating drugs stored in emergency medication kits in a remote pharmacy location
A written agreement shall include reasons why an additional pharmacy is required to meet the emergency medication needs of the residents of the institution
All of the above are correct
Which Class of pharmacy permit pharmacy technicians to transfer a non-controlled prescription?
Class B (Nuclear) and remote pharmacies
Class A (Community) and remote pharmacies
Class A (Community) and Class G pharmacies
Satellite and remote pharmacies
The History of Pharmacy. Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. 2022.
https://www.ttuhsc.edu/pharmacy/museum/pharmacy.history.aspx. Accessed February 6, 2023.
Thompson JE. Cabeza de Vaca: The First Texas Surgeon. Bayl. Univ. Med. Cent. Proc. 1995;8(4):3-6, doi: 10.1080/08998280.1995.11929937
History. Texas State Board of Pharmacy. 2023. https://www.pharmacy.texas.gov/about/history.asp. Accessed February 7, 2023.
Regulation Nation: What Industries Are Most Carefully Overseen? FindLaw. 2019. https://www.findlaw.com/legalblogs/small- business/regulation-nation-what-industries-are-most-carefully- overseen/. Accessed February 15, 2023.
The Texas State Board of Pharmacy Mission and Action Statements https://www.pharmacy.texas.gov/about/mission.asp. Accessed February 13, 2023.
Texas State Board of Pharmacy. FAQs Fingerprints. Pharmacist Renewal. https://www.pharmacy.texas.gov/fingerprints/fingerprints- pharmacist-renewal.asp. Accessed April 23, 2023.
22 Tex. Admin. Code §291.8. Casetext. Updated February 10, 2023. https://casetext.com/regulation/texas-administrative-code/title-22- examining-boards/part-15-texas-state-board-of-pharmacy/chapter- 291-pharmacies/subchapter-a-all-classes-of-pharmacies/section-2918- return-of-prescription-drugs. Accessed February 6, 2023.
22 Tex. Admin. Code, §291.33.
22 Tex. Admin. Code, §295.8.
22 Tex. Admin. Code, §297.8.
22 Tex. Admin. Code, §283.4.
Chapter 291. Pharmacies. Texas Secretary of State. 2022. https://www.sos.texas.gov/texreg/archive/August192022/Adopted%20 Rules/22.EXAMINING%20BOARDS.html. Accessed February 13, 2023.
Section 291.131. Pharmacies Compounding Non-Sterile Preparations. Elaws.us. 2022. http://txrules.elaws.us/rule/title22_chapter291_sec.291.131. Accessed February 13, 2023.
22 Tex. Admin. Code, §291.121
Accessed February 13, 2023.
22 Tex. Admin. Code, §291.34.
Texas State Board of Pharmacy. Texas Pharmacy Rules. https://www.pharmacy.texas.gov/Rules_Pharmacy_Rules.asp. Accessed February 11, 2023
Texas State Board of Pharmacy. Pain Management CE Requirement. Undated. https://www.pharmacy.texas.gov/licensees/ce-pain- management.asp. Accessed April 23, 2023.
Texas State Board of Pharmacy. Prescribing and Monitoring Controlled Substances CE Requirement. Undated. https://www.pharmacy.texas.gov/licensees/ce-prescribing-monitoring- cs.asp. Accessed April 23, 2023.
Texas State Board of Pharmacy. Human Trafficking Prevention Course FAQ. Undated. https://www.pharmacy.texas.gov/licensees/ce-human- trafficking-faq.asp. Accessed April 23, 2023.
Texas Prescription Monitoring Program. Texas State Board of Pharmacy. https://www.pharmacy.texas.gov/PMP/aware.asp. Accessed February 7, 2023.
Frequently asked questions. Texas Prescription Monitoring Program. 2023. https://txpmp.org/faq . Accessed February 9, 2023.
H.R. No. 222. Capitol.texas.gov. https://capitol.texas.gov/tlodocs/88R/billtext/html/HR00222I.HTM . Accessed February 15, 2023.
Texas House Bill 2088.
Texas House Bill 2021.
Texas Senate Bill 622.
review-plan-fy22-25.pdfAccessed February 13, 2023.
The information provided in this course is general in nature, and it is solely designed to provide participants with continuing education credit(s). This course and materials are not meant to substitute for the independent, professional judgment of any participant regarding that participant’s professional practice, including but not limited to patient assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and/or health management. Medical and pharmacy practices, rules, and laws vary from state to state, and this course does not cover the laws of each state; therefore, participants must consult the laws of their state as they relate to their professional practice.
Healthcare professionals, including pharmacists and pharmacy technicians, must consult with their employer, healthcare facility, hospital, or other organization, for guidelines, protocols, and procedures they are to follow. The information provided in this course does not replace those guidelines, protocols, and procedures but is for academic purposes only, and this course’s limited purpose is for the completion of continuing education credits.
Participants are advised and acknowledge that information related to medications, their administration, dosing, contraindications, adverse reactions, interactions, warnings, precautions, or accepted uses are constantly changing, and any person taking this course
understands that such person must make an independent review of medication information prior to any patient assessment, diagnosis, treatment and/or health management. Any discussion of off-label use of any medication, device, or procedure is informational only, and such uses are not endorsed hereby.
Nothing contained in this course represents the opinions, views, judgments, or conclusions of RxCe.com LLC. RxCe.com LLC is not liable or responsible to any person for any inaccuracy, error, or omission with respect to this course, or course material.
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