Pamela Sardo, PharmD, BS

Pamela Sardo, PharmD, BS, is a freelance medical writer and currently licensed pharmacist in 3 states. She is the founder and principal at Sardo Solutions in Texas. Pam received her BS from the University of Connecticut and her PharmD from the University of Rhode Island. Pam’s career spans many years in retail, clinics, hospitals, long-term care, Veterans Affairs, and managed health care responsibilities across a broad range of therapeutic classes and disease states.


Topic Overview

Whether a person is an early-career, mid-career, or late-career pharmacy professional, there are many roads to career advancement or new directions in patient care that can improve healthcare outcomes. Pharmacy personnel may also seek change because they feel stressed, underappreciated, or unfulfilled. They may not be aware of job openings or opportunities that can allow them to pivot toward a new career direction while still impacting patient care and contributing to professional decision-making in the healthcare field. Becoming aware of alternate or nontraditional career options and their strategic impact on career decisions can open up new opportunities in pharmacy practice. Medical science liaisons, clinical research coordinators, medical writers, nuclear pharmacy, regulatory affairs managers, and academic professors are just a few of the available opportunities for pharmacists. Pharmacy technicians may also pursue pharmaceutical manufacturing laboratory roles, phlebotomy, quality assurance, teaching, national or state government positions, or medical and over-the-counter sales careers.


Accreditation Statement

image LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.


Universal Activity Number (UAN): The ACPE Universal Activity Number assigned to this activity is 

Pharmacist  0669-0000-23-189-H04-P

Pharmacy Technician  0669-0000-23-190-H04-T

Credits: 2 contact hours of continuing education credit

Type of Activity: Knowledge


Media: Internet/Home study Fee Information: $6.99


Estimated time to complete activity: 2 contact hours, including Course Test and course evaluation


Release Date: November 22, 2023 Expiration Date: November 22, 2026


Target Audience: This educational activity is for pharmacists.


How to Earn Credit: From November 22, 2023, through November 22, 2026, participants must:


Read the “learning objectives” and “author and planning team disclosures;”

Study the section entitled “educational activity;” and

Complete the Course Test and Evaluation form. The Course Test will be graded automatically. Following successful completion of the Course Test with a score of 70% or higher, a statement of participation will be made available immediately. (No partial credit will be given.)

Credit for this course will be uploaded to CPE Monitor®.


Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this educational activity, participants should be able to:


Identify alternate career titles beyond retail or hospital pharmacy

Describe nontraditional position responsibilities that utilize pharmacy competencies

Define steps to initiate a change in career path

Review a real-world case involving alternate careers for personal decision-making



The following individuals were involved in developing this activity: PharmD, BS. Pamela Sardo was an employee of Rhythm Pharmaceuticals until March 2022 and has no conflicts of interest or relationships regarding the subject matter discussed. There are no financial relationships relevant to this activity to report or disclose in the development of this activity.


© LLC 2023: All rights reserved. No reproduction of all or part of any content herein is allowed without the prior, written permission of LLC.



The role of pharmacists in healthcare decision-making and research has been broadening over the past decades, increasing the prominence pharmacists have in interprofessional collaborative care settings. These changes have created opportunities for pharmacists and staff to consider new career paths post-graduation or advance within their current pharmacy field. These expanding roles may also provide an opportunity for improved job satisfaction and patient care. Career changes may result from a personal desire to advance within a profession, change career direction based on new opportunities or personal interests, or because of dissatisfaction with current employment. Often, a new work direction will require new technical skills and expertise, which means additional education. This course explores career opportunities and some valuable strategies and considerations a person should know when considering a possible career change.


Motivations That Can Lead to Career Changes


Changes in a professional career can be motivated by professionals who recognize that their profession is expanding into new fields or by a desire to progress and fulfill career and financial goals.1-3 In addition, individuals may want or perceive they need to change their careers because of dissatisfaction with their current jobs, burnout, or financial needs.4,5


Positive Motivations for Career Changes


As with any profession, individuals entering pharmacy practice will have goals and ambitions they seek to fulfill. Goals can be monetary wealth or monetary wealth, including salary levels, bonuses, and benefits.1,2 Success can also be measured by the attainment of career advancement milestones, including promotion or tenure within academia.1,2 In order to meet these goals and ambitions, pharmacy professionals should be aware of the many opportunities that have opened for them.3 These will be discussed below.

A Need for a Career Change


Pharmacy professionals may hear someone say, “I am not happy in my work setting,” or that they feel trapped in a position while experiencing burnout. They hear a former co-worker share how that person is enjoying a new position, which sounds fascinating, causing others to ask, “Could that be me?”


A survey published in 2022 revealed that the top 3 reasons pharmacists were dissatisfied included workload, management, and work/life balance.4 Many pharmacists express frustration that they have not received raises for several years. On a scale of 1 to 7, when asked to rate how likely they would be to work in a pharmacy career again if starting over, the average answer was 3.65. The average response rating was 3.8 when asked how likely they would select the same practice setting again.4


Burnout among health professionals, even in an academic setting, has been implicated in the decision to leave a teaching career. A variety of burnout prediction factors have been identified. Among those predictors are stress, poor work-life balance, and female gender. Nontenure track faculty expressed the highest burnout.5


A negative work culture and lack of collegiality have been identified as causing employee turnover. The authors noted that poor relationships between colleagues and administration play a role in an employee’s desire and intention to leave a position.6


The Table below, Faculty Perceived Stress Score, reveals a perceived stress score (PSS) survey result of 1088 interviewees.6 While the Table reviews job satisfaction in the academic setting, the level and persistence of stress and the ability to cope are applicable in the pharmacy work setting. 6 The rates of dissatisfaction were high: 42% said they felt nervous or stressed at work fairly often or very often; 16% said they could not cope with all the

things that they had to do at work.6 These numbers point toward job dissatisfaction that may lead to a desired change in careers.


Faculty Perceived Stress Score (PSS) in 20186

Question n=1088
In the last month, how often have you felt nervous or stressed?Never20 (1.8%)
 Almost never158 (14.5%)
 Sometimes453 (41.6%)
 Fairly often326 (30.0%)
 Very often131 (12.0%)

In the last month, how often have you found that you could not cope with all the things that you had to


Never183 (16.8%)
 Almost never376 (34.6%)
 Sometimes354 (32.6%)
 Fairly often129 (11.9%)
 Very often45 (4.1%)


Skills that Advance Career Options


There are skills that help individuals advance or pivot in their careers. They include problem-solving, collaboration, cultural sensitivity, communication, self-awareness, leadership, innovation, and entrepreneurship.3 These are “transferable skills” since the person possessing them takes these skills from job to job. These skills are essential to being a good leader and managing conflicts.3 Because these skills are so sought after by employers, it may be said that they are essential to an individual’s career advancement.3 These skills lead to creativity, persuasion, adaptability, and emotional intelligence. Studies have found that a positive attitude, communication, teamwork, and strong work ethic are also useful and critical skills for any person who wants to succeed in their career.3 For the person

deciding to step out into the employment market, honing and displaying these skills is indispensable.


Trained pharmacy professionals seek new positions that achieve the person’s individual goals. However, candidates should always place emphasis on what the company needs. When preparing a résumé or preparing to interview, it is helpful to remember that companies choose candidates who can bring value to the organization. They choose candidates who can help them solve the company’s unmet needs or problems. Being intelligent is not enough if the candidate does not understand the company’s mission, goals, or upcoming project objectives. In an interview, a candidate may inquire, ‘If I am selected, I plan to hit the ground running to help solve the company’s unmet needs. What are the top unmet needs to be addressed in the first 30 to 60 days?’


Identify and Demystify Alternate Career Options


In an ever-changing world, an individual must create and execute strategies for success. The same is true when it comes to changing or advancing in a career in pharmacy practice. First, it is important to define what success means and how it is measured within a career. The Merriam- Webster dictionary defines success as ‘‘a degree or measure of succeeding, a favorable or desired outcome, and the attainment of wealth, favor or eminence.’’7



Individuals can have multiple options, objectives, and variables of possible career positions. Some successful careers will bring increased monetary wealth. Other careers will favor packages of salary and benefits, bonuses, favorable accumulation of paid time off, or the opportunity to supplement income via external consulting activities.1,2 Success can also be measured by the attainment of career advancement milestones, including promotion and/or tenure. Finally, ‘eminence’ in the form of awards for excellence in education or clinical practice may be the most important factor. Local, regional, or national recognition for expertise in a given field can also be used to distinguish a successful pharmacy professional.1,2 Pharmacy professionals can be innovative and decide which path on the ‘yellow brick road’ to take.


Some universities are sharing professional career options. Students and early career pharmacy professionals are taking advantage of access to university career development services. One publication summarized that most students (76.8%) were satisfied with their access to these services.8 Students were most satisfied with an internship panel, fourth-year residency seminars, and third-year professional development elective courses.8 Additional services were recommended to be added in the future. These included more networking opportunities with alumni, continued exposure to different careers in pharmacy, and more emphasis on the job searching process.8


To begin exploring a possible career pivot, take a personal inventory. Sit down with a pencil or computer and document strengths, skills, talents, values, interests, preferred work environment, and culture. Beyond retail or hospital, consider job titles that may be of interest to your profession as a pharmacist or pharmacy technician. There are many new opportunities in the pharmacy field. Some of them are briefly discussed below. Additional, comprehensive details and responsibilities can be researched for each role.

A chemotherapy pharmacist prepares admixtures, assesses the compatibility of combination treatments, dispenses, and consults regarding cancer treatments. They assess quality and engage in formulary decisions, among other complex responsibilities.9


A nuclear pharmacist prepares, tests, and dispenses radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosing and treating cancer and other diseases or diagnostic tests and imaging. They manage laboratory procedures and drug production and supervise handling, packaging, and delivery. They are actively involved in the safety and disposal of hazardous bio-waste products.9




A long-term care pharmacist oversees pharmaceutical services for patients and works in collaboration with physicians, nurses, and medical staff to evaluate patient health. They dispense and resolve medication-related concerns.9


A pharmacy specialist may also be referred to by other names. They assemble and maintain patient medical histories and review the patient histories and medical records to evaluate a patient's care needs. They may assist with medication assistance programs and meet with medical staff.9 A hospice pharmacist is another career opportunity that specializes in end-of- life care.

A clinical pharmacist collaborates with physicians and other providers to review medications, evaluate drug regimens, and recommend alternate therapy.9 A clinical pharmacist also addresses the risk of allergic reactions and the potential for adverse effects.9


A health outcomes pharmacist may also be known as a health economics pharmacist or a pharmaco-economist. They plan and implement patient care programs, which may include cost minimization, cost-effectiveness, and patient-reported outcomes. Their roles may involve calculating or analyzing a number needed to treat analysis. They execute medication therapy and disease management, adhere to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, and connect with patients and staff.9


Pharmacists and technicians may find interest in pharmacogenomics.10 Pharmacogenomics is the study of an individual's genomic profile and how it influences the individual's response to drugs. Pharmacogenomics is a clinical tool that can optimize patient outcomes from drug therapy.11 For example, gene variations may increase the risk of severe, life-threatening adverse effects of certain drugs. “Integrating pharmacogenomics into clinical practice to assist in drug selection and dosing has the potential to improve the outcomes of treatment, reduce the risk of drug-induced morbidity and death, and be cost-effective.”11 This is a field that could be interesting and fulfilling to a pharmacy professional looking for a career change or advancement.


A pharmaceutical sales executive is also known as a sales representative. They learn the science of and sell the company products. They teach clinicians about dosing or devices. They educate medical professionals on uses, and side effects and answer questions about differences from other therapeutics.12 There are also over-the-counter product sales positions.


Pharmaceutical research technicians may be employed by clinics, universities, or free-standing research centers. They assist doctors, veterinarians, or scientists with the research and development of new or existing medications. They often supervise experiments, document laboratory

results, maintain records, and test for different compounds.12 This may be a good role for pharmacy technicians. Pharmaceutical research may be paired with a specific field; for example, a technician may assist in research in the area of pediatrics or pharmacogenomics, as discussed above.


A laboratory technician is a person who performs various procedures in a laboratory setting. They maintain equipment, ensure a clean workspace, and help lead scientists with different experiments. Laboratory technicians also analyze samples and conduct laboratory testing based on standard procedures.12 This may be an alternative role for a pharmacy technician after completing additional training.


A medical science liaison may also be known by many other names. They act as scientific peers in the medical community. They may educate physicians about newly discovered diseases or investigational products. They ensure an FDA-approved product is used properly and provide scientific expertise to clinical colleagues. Medical science liaisons also maintain communication and relationships with academic researchers, attend conferences, and engage in discussions on drug therapies and diseases.12


Clinical research coordinators may be employed by institutions or free- standing research centers. They administer clinical trials and may be promoted to a clinical research manager. They manage and gather clinical data, let participants know about a study's objective, and administer questionnaires while monitoring safety.12


A medical writer may be employed by a pharmaceutical company or institution or may be self-employed. They plan, create, and edit scientific papers such as research or drug-related documents. They may create literature or content for medical or healthcare websites. They write and edit their medical writing deliverables and work alongside scientists or doctors.12

A regulatory affairs manager ensures companies remain compliant with rules and regulations set by different regulatory agencies. They oversee the regulation process, create procedures to verify compliance and coordinate company inspections.12 They may also create safety, quality, or manufacturing data reports for submission to government agencies, such as the FDA.


A human or veterinary compounding pharmacist provides custom compounding. These professionals mix and dispense high-risk sterile and non- sterile compounded products, applying the highest standards of pharmaceutical expertise and business practices.12 They manage the filling, verifying, and shipping of orders, ensure quality and compliance standards are met, and enhance operations through continuous improvement practices. There are opportunities for pharmacy technicians in this career path.


Academic instructors or professors require academic, clinical, or industrial experience in pharmacy, neuroscience, biological science, anatomy, or other areas to teach undergraduate or graduate courses. The academic should demonstrate teaching excellence or multiple years of professional experience within a specific discipline.12 They are often required to execute academic ‘quadripartite’ responsibilities (i.e., teaching, research/scholarship, clinical practice/service, and public service).13 Many colleges that offer pharmacy technician classes require pharmacy technicians as instructors.


Government positions include the FDA, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, and Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. Opportunities are in the National Institutes of Health, Veterans Affairs, Indian Health Services, National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP), state Health and Human Services, and many others. These roles may be operational, clinical, or project management. Positions involve disease monitoring, public health, evaluation of drug proposals, inspections, and the surveillance of marketed drugs for safety and efficacy.14 Pharmacy technicians have critical roles in the Veterans Affairs, Indian Health Services, and other locations.

There are many diverse managed-care pharmacy positions for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. These may include benefit development and administration, medication therapy management (MTM), drug utilization review, disease management, or quality improvement. The positions may be responsible for drug information, health economics, formulary development and management, or rebate contracting.15,16 The pharmacy technician's roles may include patient interactions and reviewing reports.


There are broad drug wholesaler management and operations roles to manage product distribution and provide services to clients. They may work with NABP and manufacturers regarding the chain of product custody and offer certification programs to ensure best practices for storage conditions and protocols. They may assist with business planning, project development, and cost-saving initiatives. They advise on regulatory compliance and ensure patient safety and inventory freshness.17 Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians may find rewarding career opportunities here.




The job market is not saturated everywhere. There are career opportunities in pharmacy-related law roles, pharmaceutical manufacturing, or as a pharmacy society executive director. Some pharmacy professionals have started nutraceutical companies. Others have gained employment with institution accreditation bodies, such as the Joint Commission.


Some healthcare professionals, including pharmacists, have a niche in a self-employed boutique, cash-only clinical consulting, or disease management positions. They provide services to physician offices or in patient

homes. Others have discovered rewarding employment in information systems roles as healthcare technology as regulations become more complex.


Initiating a Career Change Process


A change in career may be driven by an individual’s desire to fulfill career dreams and goals and advance within their profession. It may also be driven by dissatisfaction with current employment. In 2021 alone, nearly 50 million Americans quit or changed careers.18 Job hopping is losing its stigma, with 22.3% of workers ages 20 and older spending one year or less at their jobs in 2022 (and 33% spending less than two years).19 Employee turnover shows few signs of slowing down.19


Regardless of the motivation for seeking a career change, there are important factors to consider:1,20,21


Understand the value system in an organization

Identify successful people in the organization

Find people who are willing to help you

Appreciate the difference between short- and long-term success

Know what is required for promotions

Learn about your rights and learn policies

Recognize what is non-negotiable and negotiable

Explore opportunities for salary enhancement

Learn how to compete for resources

Prioritize basic responsibilities

Understand the formal review and evaluation processes

A career change may require further education


Small changes can add up to the significant transformations when looking for a new career. Rather than focusing on landing a dream role right away, consider breaking down career ambitions into manageable, incremental steps.

In some instances, a career change may arise out of a “crisis,” such as when an individual is forced to consider a career change because of unexpected circumstances, e.g., a lost job. When initiating a career change in this context, the first step is to ask a reflective question, such as:


What is your attitude about, or reaction to, changes you cannot control?

Does uncertainty pique your curiosity or make you run for the hills?

What is your attitude about unexpected career changes?

If you were to lose your job tomorrow, would you see that as a tragedy or the opening you have been waiting for?


These questions are intended to frame a person’s thinking toward the positive rather than the negative. Viewing unexpected or unwanted job changes as hopeful rather than fearful is an opportunity to learn. It is also an opportunity for personal and professional growth. The future of employment is not linear. It is often multidimensional and ever-changing.19


Fundamental job elements include work location, area of expertise, the company itself, the department, and the role. A new role is often possible by reinventing one’s reputation within a new team, learning a new function, and understanding the politics of a new organization.


To move to a different professional sector, start by taking on a job in the sector you are interested in, even if it is not the dream job. Take the opportunity to learn the responsibilities, make connections, and gain relevant experience in that sector. Next, use that experience to apply for better jobs in that sector until you eventually land your dream job.19 If you want to switch functions or roles, try volunteering for tasks or projects that are outside the current job description. Take a class or gain experience and develop skills in the areas of interest.


What should be done about a résumé? Career coaches often advise to modify a résumé based on the job description. That is only part of what is needed to get past the human resources department's Automated Tracking

System. Some professional résumé writers advise that matching 90% of the position criteria may be needed to go to the next step, where a résumé is then seen by humans. Do not get discouraged. Plan and rewrite the résumé or hire a résumé specialist.


Criteria used to screen résumés are often different than the published job descriptions. Some job descriptions are written generally. The same description may cover a group of jobs in different departments, locations, and business units and for different managers. Each hiring manager has different needs.


Published job descriptions may or may not be current. Posting for replacement positions may be recycled from the departing employee’s responsibilities even though needs have changed. Needs may only be communicated verbally to an executive search firm, so engaging with those firms may be helpful.


A résumé is often the first impression that recruiters have of an applicant. Lacking skills or experience for a job can make it difficult to stand out from other applicants. Enhancing skills can take patience, but keeps the momentum moving forward. Build confidence for a smooth transition while developing skills.22


Reviewing job boards, industry blogs, podcasts, or other social media may be effective. Research roles, responsibilities, skills, and trends. Ask people for a brief informational interview to explore the expertise that is desired. Networking is the optimal way to pivot careers. Seek advice from mentors, alumni, colleagues, friends, or professional association colleagues. Offer to volunteer or shadow someone for a day. Some positions allow a position rotation, which may last from one to three months to learn and initiate a project or function in the new role. Strategies to increase a sense of community, or a sense of value, such as volunteer work, are valuable to undertake.6

Real-world Case of Career Pivot


The Figure below reveals a real-world case of this author’s personal career changes and how they occurred over time. Many of these positions occurred unexpectedly due to prior positions, activities, and successes. Sharing this pathway is simply meant to encourage others. Everyone’s path is different, but an idea may lead to another idea. I hope readers gain insight that may springboard them to think out of the box to achieve optimal careers. Anything can happen!


Figure: Real World Career Change Case




Volunteering in the state pharmacy organization led to invitations to appear on television and radio, and other successes resulted in my recruitment into a pharmacy benefits management (PBM) role. I learned about physician networks, sales, marketing, formulary decision-making, and disease management algorithms. This contributed to being selected by a health

maintenance organization (HMO) for clinical roles. I learned about pharmacy contracts and prior authorization processes and was invited to become an adjunct instructor of pharmacy to establish a managed care rotation for pharmacy students. My ‘side gig’ was receiving invitations to serve on pharmaceutical company advisory boards on multiple weekends. I moved due to my husband’s job and was hired as a pharmaceutical manufacturer sales representative. His career moved us again, and I was hired into the Veterans Affairs. After moving again, a pharmaceutical manufacturer hired me into a managed care team. I attended a leadership meeting where a vice president told attendees that if you are asked to take on an expanded or nontraditional role, even if it involves moving, the recommendation is not to decline, as the opportunity might not be offered again. I was selected by leadership vice presidents to live overseas in Asia to train MDs, PhDs, and pharmacists on the company products, clinical, research, and safety data. I retired after 10 years, then decided to apply to small start-up manufacturers. I was employee #40 in a small company. It was an entrepreneurial environment with little bureaucracy, which was fun. I left the manufacturer to be the primary caregiver for my father. I then decided to take a career pivot once more to become a self-employed medical writer. I had been writing newsletters, abstracts, and communications for years, but to enhance my skills, I took a medical writing certificate program and now have the joy of planning and writing evidence-based continuing education.


Strategies for a career change include the following:1,3


Apply “transferable skills” such as problem-solving, collaboration, cultural sensitivity, communication, self-awareness, leadership, innovation, and entrepreneurship

Research the company documents and website thoroughly to understand their goals, research, and viewpoints

Find a mentor in the new position

Learn your position, policies, and procedures

Determine where you want to go in the new company

Be of service to the company, the profession, and colleagues

Become a local expert in an area of interest

Never stop learning

Take advantage of extracurricular opportunities

Saying ‘No’ is acceptable in some cases to prevent burnout

Be a team player and collaborate

Enjoy reaping the rewards


Professional Next Steps


The future of pharmacy will continue to evolve. An established career position today may look very different in the future. For example, pharmacogenomics is changing the landscape in clinical practice, and the outcomes of this are not yet fully known.


Other technologies are also impacting the way healthcare is delivered. An example would be automated dispensing machines, known as ADMs, that are being more widely used.23 Medication distribution systems that offer computer-controlled medicines storage, dispensing, and monitoring require a pharmacy team interface. The primary use of these machines is to increase the efficiency of medicine distribution and patient safety, and they are currently widely employed in many hospitals.23 Automation, artificial intelligence, pharmacogenomics, unique analytical skills, and future evolutions not yet visible to our profession will occur. Practicing at the top of the profession or a novel position requires looking for opportunities and being flexible and adaptable. Candidates often want specific jobs, hours, and responsibilities; however, employers often prioritize a candidate who brings innovation and needed skills to their company. That is a key point that many pharmacy applicants may fail to see. It is time for a mindset upgrade. The world is waiting for new pharmacy professionals to contribute to solving problems today and in the future.



Changes in a professional career can be motivated by professionals who recognize that their profession is expanding into new fields or by a desire to progress and fulfill career and financial goals. In addition, individuals may want or perceive they need to change their careers because of dissatisfaction with their current jobs, burnout, or financial needs.


For the person deciding to step out into the employment market, honing and displaying “transferable skills” is indispensable. Be a good problem-solver, collaborator, communicator, and innovator. Be creative, culturally sensitive, self-aware, and display leadership. This will require the skills of emotional intelligence and persuasion and being able to adapt to the work environment. Companies also search for candidates who are self-confident (not arrogant) and search for individuals who will fit into their current team dynamics. Finally, a strong work ethic, a positive attitude, and a teamwork approach will go a long way toward success in a career.

Course Test


Which of the following choices is not an alternate career title relevant to pharmacy professionals?


Nuclear pharmacy role

Clinical specialist

Massage therapist

Pharmaceutical sales


Which of the following careers manages product distribution and provides additional services to clients?


Regulatory affairs roles with the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy and Indian Health Services

Medical writing


Wholesaler management and operations


When a person is forced to make a career change or is in crisis mode, a positive first step is to ask a reflective question, such as:


What is my attitude about changes I cannot control?

Will my current employer be able to replace me?

Why did I take this job in the first place?

Should I stay or should I go?


Skills that help individuals advance or pivot in their careers include “transferrable skills,” which are defined as


skills a person can teach to others.

skills that are not applicable to every workplace.

skills a person possesses that he or she takes from job to job.

skills that are protected, proprietary information.


What steps are some universities taking to share career options?


Access to university health clinics

Access to university career development services

Access to an international summer rotation

Access to course tutoring sessions

When initiating a career change, all of the following are steps to consider except for which choice below?


View unexpected or unwanted job changes as hopeful

Break ambitions into manageable, incremental steps

Run for the hills and call in sick when stressed

Rewrite the résumé or hire a résumé specialist


Regardless of motivation, when considering a career change, important factors to consider include


identifying people who have been laid off.

finding people who are willing to help if they are hired too.

appreciating that short- and long-term success are identical.

understanding the value system in an organization.


Which statement below is most likely true regarding résumés and career changes?


Résumé writers advise that a good résumé matches 60% of the position criteria

Coaches advise modifying résumés based on the job description

Criteria to screen résumés are the same as the job descriptions

Job descriptions may cover positions in different departments


Which suggestion below regarding initiating a career change is the least accurate?


Review job boards, industry blogs, and podcasts

Research roles, responsibilities, trends, and skills

Ask people for a brief informational interview

Seeking mentor advice is less important than seeking advice from alumni


Which statement applies to a real-world career change?


Volunteer activities can contribute to new career opportunities

Moving to a new geography is never a good professional idea

College instructor roles happen only after learning contracts

Learning about prescriber networks guarantees a promotion



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