HIV-AIDS: Prevalence, Etiology, and Prevention

Pharmacist CEU
Contact Hours: 2.0 (0.2 CEUs)

Course Summary

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV can significantly depress immune system function leading progressively to AIDS. Prior to the development of antiretroviral medications, essentially everyone infected with HIV progressed to developing AIDS, leading to the development of opportunistic infections and/or neoplasms. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-1 infection and AIDS, and it has enabled HIV-infected individuals to live longer and have an improved quality of life. Nevertheless, HIV and AIDS are still serious health problems that continue to require federal and state resources. This course provides a general discussion on the transmission, progression, and a brief overview of the treatment of HIV and AIDS and also includes relevant case studies.

Course Objectives

Identify how HIV/AIDS is transmitted

Identify methods of prevention and precaution for HIV/AIDS transmission

Describe the types of co-occurring disorders that may be seen in patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS

Describe HIV testing, confidentiality of test results for patients, and partner notification

I. Introduction

II. Etiology of HIV/AIDS

III. Prevalence of HIV

IV. Types and Stages of HIV Infection

1. HIV-1 and HIV-2
2. Stages of HIV Infection
3. The Acute HIV Infection Stage
4. The Chronic HIV Infection Stage

V. HIV Transmission and Prevention

1. Sexual Transmission
2. Blood Transfusion Transmission
3. Needle Sharing
4. Occupational Exposure
5. Possible Exposure risks for Pharmacists and Technicians
6. SHEA Guidelines and the HIV-infected Healthcare Worker
7. Healthcare Worker to Patient HIV Transmission
8. Mother-to-Infant Transmission

VI. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis, ART and Other Preventions

1. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis
2. Case Study: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

VII. HIV Screening

1. Blood Test for Antibodies to HIV and HIV Antigen
2. Home Screening Tests

VIII. AIDS and Co-occurring Disorders

1. Cardiovascular Disease
2. Pulmonary Disease
3. Neurological Disease
4. Oral Lesions
5. Liver Disease
6. Hematologic Disease
7. Endocrine Disease
8. Dermatological Disease
9. Neoplastic Disease
10. Genitourinary Disease
11. AIDS-defining Diseases
12. Case Study: HIV and Kidney Transplant

IX. Brief Overview of Antiretroviral Therapy

1. ART Regimen Compliance Barriers
2. Case Study: ART and Viral Rebound in an Adolescent Male
3. Case Study: Prolonged Remission in a Child Born with HIV

X. State Regulations for HIV/AIDS Testing

XI. Summary


How to Earn Credit:
To earn credit for this course, participants must:
  1. Read the course objectives and faculty planner disclosure
  2. Read the course material
  3. Complete the post-test with a minimum score of 70% and complete the course evaluation form.
  4. Results are automatically submitted to CPE Monitor

Faculty Planner Disclosure

The following individuals were involved in the development of this activity: Marilyn Lajoie, MD, DC, CCSP, Susan DePasquale, MSN, PMHNP-BC, and Amanda Mayer, PharmD. There are no financial relationships relevant to this activity to report or disclose by any of the individuals involved in the development of this activity.

Unlabeled Use Disclosures

The information provided in this course is general in nature and it is solely designed to provide participants with continuing education credit(s). This course and materials are not meant to substitute for the independent, professional judgment of any participant regarding that participant’s professional practice, including but not limited to patient assessment, diagnosis, treatment and/or health management. Medical and pharmacy practices, rules, and laws vary from state to state, and this course does not cover the laws of each state; therefore, participants must consult the laws of their state as they relate to their professional practice. Healthcare professionals, including pharmacists and pharmacy technicians, must consult with their employer, healthcare facility, hospital, or other organization, for guidelines, protocols, and procedures they are to follow. The information provided in this course does not replace those guidelines, protocols, and procedures but is for academic purposes only, and this course’s limited purpose is for the completion of continuing education credits. Participants are advised and acknowledge that information related to medications, their administration, dosing, contraindications, adverse reactions, interactions, warnings, precautions, or accepted uses are constantly changing, and any person taking this course understands that such person must make an independent review of medication information prior to any patient assessment, diagnosis, treatment and/or health management. Any discussion of off-label use of any medication, device, or procedure is informational only and such uses are not endorsed hereby. Nothing contained in this course represents the opinions, views, judgments, or conclusions of LLC. LLC is not liable or responsible to any person for any inaccuracy, error, or omission with respect to this course, or course material.

Computer Hardware/Software Requirements

Please ensure the device you plan to use meets these requirements and specifications:

  • Operating System: Windows 7,8,10, or 11 /Mac OS X 10.9 or later/iOS/Android
  • Supported Browsers: Microsoft Edge, Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari, Opera
  • A connection to the internet
  • For Live Webinars or Conferences: GoToWebinar application for iOS, Android, Mac, or PC. You cannot 'call into' a live conference.

  • Target Audience: Pharmacist
  • Contact Hours: 2.0 (0.2 CEUs)
  • Activity Release Date: 8/23/2022
  • Activity Expiration Date: 8/23/2025
  • Activity Type: Knowledge
  • UAN: 0669-0000-22-002-H02-P
  • Topic: HIV/AIDS Therapy
  • CeBroker Number: 20-None


Marilyn Lajoie, MD, DC, CCSP


Susan DePasquale, MSN, FPMHNP-BC



The logo for the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE)., LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

‹‹ Back to Course List