Ethical and Legal Challenges of Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare

Pharmacist CEU
Contact Hours: 2.0 (0.2 CEUs)

Course Summary

Artificial intelligence in healthcare has outgrown the current ethical and legal structures governing the delivery of healthcare in the United States and worldwide, potentially eroding the protection of patient autonomy and privacy. As artificial intelligence technologies become more complex, they give rise to “black box medicine,” making it difficult, if not impossible, to understand how these technologies work. This threatens patient autonomy since patients are not able to be informed sufficiently to enable them to make and consent to their healthcare decisions. Protecting patients’ privacy is also problematic since artificial intelligence relies heavily on data collection and sharing. Nevertheless, artificial intelligence is permanently part of healthcare. The goal is to use it to deliver safer and more effective healthcare, leading to improved patient outcomes while promoting fairness, protecting patient autonomy and privacy, and mitigating potential conflicts of interest.

Course Objectives

Identify how Artificial Intelligence systems make healthcare

Describe the ethical challenges to using Artificial Intelligence in healthcare

Describe the legal challenges to using Artificial Intelligence in healthcare

Review the role of Artificial Intelligence in the pharmacy setting

I. Introduction

II. A Brief Overview of Artificial Intelligence

III. Artificial Intelligence and Its Use in Healthcare

IV. Ethical and Legal Considerations

1. Informed Consent
2. Transparency
3. Privacy
4. Fairness
5. Safety
6. Liability

V. Artificial Intelligence in the Pharmacy Setting

VI. Implications for Pharmacists and Future Directions

VII. Summary

How to Earn Credit:
To earn credit for this course, participants must:
  1. Read the course objectives and faculty planner disclosure
  2. Read the course material
  3. Complete the post-test with a minimum score of 70% and complete the course evaluation form.
  4. Results are automatically submitted to CPE Monitor

Faculty Planner Disclosure

The following individuals were involved in developing this activity: Steven Malen, PharmD, MBA, and Pamela Sardo, PharmD, BS. Pamela Sardo, Pharm.D., B.S., was an employee of Rhythm Pharmaceuticals until March 2022 and has no conflicts of interest or relationships regarding the subject matter discussed. There are no financial relationships relevant to this activity to report or disclose by any of the individuals involved in the development of this activity.

Unlabeled Use Disclosures

The information provided in this course is general in nature and it is solely designed to provide participants with continuing education credit(s). This course and materials are not meant to substitute for the independent, professional judgment of any participant regarding that participant’s professional practice, including but not limited to patient assessment, diagnosis, treatment and/or health management. Medical and pharmacy practices, rules, and laws vary from state to state, and this course does not cover the laws of each state; therefore, participants must consult the laws of their state as they relate to their professional practice. Healthcare professionals, including pharmacists and pharmacy technicians, must consult with their employer, healthcare facility, hospital, or other organization, for guidelines, protocols, and procedures they are to follow. The information provided in this course does not replace those guidelines, protocols, and procedures but is for academic purposes only, and this course’s limited purpose is for the completion of continuing education credits. Participants are advised and acknowledge that information related to medications, their administration, dosing, contraindications, adverse reactions, interactions, warnings, precautions, or accepted uses are constantly changing, and any person taking this course understands that such person must make an independent review of medication information prior to any patient assessment, diagnosis, treatment and/or health management. Any discussion of off-label use of any medication, device, or procedure is informational only and such uses are not endorsed hereby. Nothing contained in this course represents the opinions, views, judgments, or conclusions of LLC. LLC is not liable or responsible to any person for any inaccuracy, error, or omission with respect to this course, or course material.

Computer Hardware/Software Requirements

Please ensure the device you plan to use meets these requirements and specifications:

  • Operating System: Windows 7,8,10, or 11 /Mac OS X 10.9 or later/iOS/Android
  • Supported Browsers: Microsoft Edge, Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari, Opera
  • A connection to the internet
  • For Live Webinars or Conferences: GoToWebinar application for iOS, Android, Mac, or PC. You cannot 'call into' a live conference.

  • Target Audience: Pharmacist
  • Contact Hours: 2.0 (0.2 CEUs)
  • Activity Release Date: 11/28/2023
  • Activity Expiration Date: 11/28/2026
  • Activity Type: Knowledge
  • UAN: 0669-0000-23-191-H03-P
  • Topic: Law
  • CeBroker Number: 20-1132398


Steve Malen, PharmD, MBA



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There is an article on this course on our blog: Ethical and Legal Challenges of AI in the Pharmacy
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